Singapore: Helicopter parent autocracy

May 31, 2011
By

“Drive Safely. Think of your loved ones.”

I had been in the taxi for three minutes, and already there was no doubt where I was.  Where else could I find an exhortation to safe driving followed by a noble justification calibrated to make even the best driver feel just a little bit guilty?

Where else could I be traveling along an urban six-lane highway under a canopy of trees, with neatly clipped hedgerows on each side and in the median?

A six lane avenue to the airport

Where else could I be intercepted, a day later,  in a shopping mall by two earnest teenagers asking me to write a note of encouragement to an about-to-be paroled first offender, encouraging him not to break the law again?

Do you know of any other country where a government website would offer advice on choosing a spouse, how to make a marriage work, and how to parent teenagers?

Welcome to Singapore, a country with something for everyone to love and also to hate, a place with enough contradictions to set your head spinning.

I spent a few days in Singapore recently, and since then I have been trying to write something about the place and my observations of it. I have started writing a dozen times, and each time I have run aground. The country defies conventional analysis, it confounds any ideological perspective, and I find it difficult even to say whether I like the place or not.  So let me instead lead you through the sources of my confusion.

An Authoritarian State?

Singapore is seldom accused of being a democracy. Freedom House gives it a “partly free” rating, putting it in the same category as Nigeria, Turkey and Colombia. Reporters Without Borders ranks Singapore 136th out of 178 countries rated in its 2010 Press Freedom Index. According to Amnesty International, the Singaporean government has created “a climate of fear” for people who oppose it. Human Rights Watch accuses Singapore of having a “long established pattern of civil and political rights abuses.”

If they were autocrats would they have a Facebook page?

Since attaining self-government in 1959, Singapore has been governed by the same political party, the People’s Action Party (PAP.) In parliamentary elections in 2011 the PAP, in its worst electoral drubbing ever, won 81 of 87 seats in Parliament.  This is a record that would do any authoritarian state proud.

But this is Singapore, and things aren’t quite what they seem to be. The country’s prisons are not filled with political dissidents; Amnesty International counted just 20 prisoners (all ‘Islamic militants’) being held without trial in 2011, a lot less than the US currently holds at Guantanamo Bay. Government opponents do not disappear in the dead of night, nor does the country have a record of extrajudicial killing. And opposition parties do exist; they just don’t do very well in elections.

Singapore’s press is clearly not free, but journalists are not brutalized or detained here, as they are in China, Burma, or Zimbabwe. Nor does the Singapore government control the news media, or use them as overt vehicles for propaganda. Indeed, the law requires that all newspaper companies to be publicly listed, and prohibits any single ordinary shareholder from owning more than a three percent stake. Instead of the standard techniques of repressive regimes, Singapore uses subtler means to persuade news media of the virtues of self-censorship.

All the news that's fit to print in Singapore's newspaper of record

Since 1994 government regulations have required all internet traffic to pass through approved proxy servers, and all religious and political bodies putting up web sites must register with the government. The state therefore holds the power to block foreign websites at will, and to shut down local ones. Yet, ten years after these internet regulations were introduced, the government had still not blocked access to any political websites. In 2005, the Open Net Initiative found no evidence that the Singapore government was filtering any political or security-related websites, although it did block a few pornographic web sites “as a symbol of disapproval of their contents” (gay websites seem to come under particular scrutiny.)

Something you would want to read

The free-yet-not-free nature of Singaporean society owes its peculiar character to the country’s founding (and longest serving) prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew. Writing in 2000, Nicholas Kristof described him as “the most eloquent autocrat in the world today… Intolerance and authoritarianism have never had so articulate or stimulating a spokesman.” Lee himself was characteristically frank (and simultaneously obtuse) on the subject of press freedom:  “Freedom of the press, freedom of the news media, must be subordinated to the overriding needs of Singapore, and to the primacy of purpose of an elected government.”  In 2007 he added, “There’s nothing that you’d want to read which you cannot read in Singapore… But we do not allow certain subjects to be made bones of contention.”

The genius of this uniquely Singaporean system, according to local author Cherian George, is “calibrated coercion.”

Economic sanctions are favoured over those that violate the sanctity of the individual. And, controls are targeted at limited numbers of producers and organizers of dissent, rather than at ordinary citizens. In short, coercion is increasingly calibrated for maximum effectiveness at minimum cost.

In Singapore today, economic sanctions frequently take the form of lawsuits for defamation, and have been aimed local as well as at foreign media (including the International Herald TribuneThe Economist, the Bloomberg business news wire, Hong Kong-based Yazhou Zhoukan and the Far Eastern Economic Review.) Defamation suits have also been used to silence or tame opposition politicians, who risk being driven into bankruptcy (and thereby being rendered ineligible to run for office again.) But lawsuits are not lodged against just anyone who opposed the government; they are instead employed sparingly and for maximum effect. That’s the calibrated part of calibrated coercion.

It would be a mistake, though, to think that the PAP’s hold on power – now in its sixth decade – is a result of coercion, calibrated or otherwise. Much evidence points to the fact that the PAP has remained in power because, notwithstanding the freedoms it denies them, most Singaporeans support it. They do so not because they have been conned, but rather because of what George describes as “their not-unfounded faith that the government will continue to deliver rising standards of living.” So far, they have not been disappointed.

From Third World to First

In 1960, Singapore was a poor country by most standards; its per capita GDP was US$428 (at 2010 prices.) A decade later it had doubled, and in the following decade it increased a further fivefold. By 2010, per capita GDP was nearly US44,000, and its Human Development Index (a measure of quality of life) put it in the ‘very high human development’ category, ahead of its former colonial overlord, the United Kingdom.

There are, of course, many reasons for Singapore’s prosperity; among the most commonly cited are its advantageous location, its lack of corruption, and the fact that it is a small city-state. But, uncomfortable though it may be for western liberals like me to stomach, Singapore’s coercive system of government may deserve a large part of the credit for the country’s economic transformation. Coming to terms with Singapore’s success is even more difficult for conservative ideologues; there is a strong argument to be made that the heavy hand of the Singaporean state in its citizens’ personal, economic, and political lives has facilitated rather than obstructed the country’s economic growth. Singapore is a ‘big government’ success story.

The world's best place to do business

A Free Market State?

On the face of it, Singapore is a capitalist’s dream come true. The World Bank rates it as the best country in the world in which to do business. It’s also been named the ‘most globalized’ and least corrupt country (in the latter it ties for first place with Denmark and New Zealand.) It’s also the third most competitive country, the second most transparent, it has the least restrictive laws about employing skilled foreigners, and the world’s third most motivated workforce. (You can find these superlatives, among others, on the Singapore government website, where all claims are scrupulously documented.)

All of these accolades might lead a free marketeer to conclude that Singapore must be adhering to that favorite dictum of American conservatives that ‘the government which governs least governs best.*’  Singapore can justifiably be accused of all manner of things, but governing lightly is not one of them, certainly where the lives of its individual (as opposed to corporate) citizens are concerned. Singaporeans are required to contribute a portion of each paycheck to a health savings account, each child receives an annual education subsidy deposited into a so-called ‘ Edusave’ account, saving for retirement in publicly managed accounts is mandatory, and the government has a central role in the housing market.

What is the result of this massive state involvement in the economic lives of its citizens? The country has near universal health care for its citizens and permanent residents, homelessness rates are low, its 15 year-olds recently ranked in the top five among OECD (developed) countries in science, mathematics, and reading, and, for the time being at least, retirees are generally comfortably off.

In other words, a strong case can be made that Singapore has achieved its high quality of life not despite government intrusion into its people’s lives, but because of it.

But if you were to ask most outsiders what they know about Singapore’s laws and policies they would, I suspect, be very unlikely to talk about economic policies or defamation suits against opposition figures. They would instead talk about chewing gum.

A Nanny State?

Singapore’s most famous news story began in 1992 when the government banned the import, manufacture and sale of chewing gum. Gum smugglers would henceforth face the prospect of a year in jail and a US$5,500 fine. The crisis that prompted the state to reach its hand into the mouths of its citizens was the mess it caused. Lee Kuan Yew complained that the stuff was fouling buildings, sidewalks, and buses. By causing doors on the subway to stick, gum was even producing a safety hazard.

The gum law (slightly relaxed in 2004) became a symbol of what Singapore’s critics are fond of calling the ‘nanny state,’ a place where the government — albeit with benevolent intentions — strictly controls the lives of its citizens. Souvenir shops make money off this reputation; emblazoned on the chest of a popular t-shirt are the words “Singapore is a FINE city;” on the back are a dozen red circles with lines through them: “No littering. Fine $1000,” “Failure to flush a public toilet. Fine $50,” and so on.

For most Singaporeans, I would guess, the whole notion of the nanny-state probably seems like a caricature. After all, they have grown up with these prohibitions, and so they must seem quite normal. For an outside like me, though, the nanny-state seems all too real. Prohibition signs are everywhere: on buses, on subways, in elevators, on street signs, even in private spaces like stores and shopping malls. During my vsits to Singapore, I have photographed over 50 different signs. Some were clear prohibitions, ranging from the threatening (“Religious Activity, Funeral Wake Rite is not allowed in this space. Offender could be fined up to $5,000”) to the downright strange (“No studying,” on a public bench outside an airport terminal.)

But most of the signs I saw weren’t prohibitions at all. Rather, they took the form of an exhortation to the citizenry to behave well, usually followed by a social argument to back it up. “Do be safe,” urges a sign on city buses, and below are five sketches showing passengers doing safe and admirable things like holding the handrail firmly while standing and keeping strollers folded while on board.  “Help us keep public transit safe from influenza A (H1N1). Practice good personal hygiene.” “Did you know? 8 out of 10 injuries in our stations are caused by the improper use of escalators?”

Guilt trip

As I stood on a tiny beach, protected from the open ocean by an artificial island, and read two signboards listing – with illustrations – seven prohibited activities and ten rules for beach safety, I realized that Singapore isn’t really a nanny state. It’s a helicopter parent state, constantly urging its citizens to be on guard for dangers, no matter how remote those dangers might be, and intervening incessantly in their lives to make sure that they do the right thing.

The right thing might involve hand-washing: I saw one sign giving instructions – with photographs – of an eight step hand-washing routine (“Employees must wash hands before returning to work” would never suffice here.) Or it might involve politeness: “Graciousness is showing appreciation by saying thank you to someone who brightens your day.”

I saw several signs urging Singaporeans to be aware of the threat of terrorism; yet the country has had no terrorism-related fatalities or injuries since 1968. Numeous notices warn of the dangers of crime, but the country’s overall crime rate is one of the lowest in the world. Its ‘intentional homicide rate’ in 2006 was 0.39 crimes per 100,000 people in the population (about 1/15 of the US rate, and lower than Switzerland or New Zealand.) And, according to the Singapore government, latest statistics show that crime rates in most categories fell even further in 2010.

Just because you're paranoid, it doesn't mean they aren't out to get you.

The Bottom Line

Whenever I visit Singapore (or anywhere else), I come with my own ideologies, preconceptions, beliefs, and experiences as an inevitable part of my baggage. Like most people, I am forever on the lookout (usually unconsciously) for evidence that supports my own views. In this regard, Singapore always proves a singularly unhelpful place.

I believe firmly in freedom of expression, assembly, and publication. I have difficulty in imagining that a government that denies these freedoms to its citizens could possibly govern with their consent. As a corollary to this, I tend to assume that the absence of dissent is almost certainly evidence that it is being suppressed. In Singapore, there isn’t much evidence of dissent and there are laws in place to suppress it. But the main reason for the absence of public dissent is not that the dissenters are being locked up or silenced.  It is that, for the most part, people are quite satisfied with the way their country is being run; in Cherian George’s words, the ruling PAP has the people’s ‘instrumental acquiescence.’ (I would find ideological solace, in a perverse way, if it were be revealed that Singapore had for years been squirreling its dissidents away in secret prisons.)

Even if you can't smell it right now

I believe that people learn responsibility by taking responsibility and making their own decisions, even when these decisions are prove to be misguided. For the most part, I don’t believe that a government (or a college professor or even a parent) should hover over adults to make sure that they make the right choices for the right reasons. As a visitor to Singapore, I find the ubiquity of warnings and pieces of advice amusing (and interesting,) but I think that if I lived there they would annoy me intensely (I might even end up spitting on the subway just to remind myself of my individuality.)  But I don’t live in Singapore, and I am forced to admit to the possibility that the helicopter parent state may have delivered positive results. Streets are clean and gumless, Singaporeans aren’t being blown up by terrorists, washed away by rip currents or dying in a skin cancer epidemic because of their collective failure to use sunblock.

In short, Singapore seems to work, and work very well indeed, at least in taking care of its residents’ physical and material well-being.  The society has given up freedoms that I believe are important, but they have also reaped benefits that arguably outweigh their sacrifices.

___

What is missing from this blog is, of course, the voice of any Singaporeans. So if you are from Singapore, and think I got it all wrong (or right) please post a comment here!

I drew heavily on the work of Cherian George, especially his paper ‘Consolidating Authoritarian Rule: Calibrated Coercion in Singapore.’  (The Pacific Review, Vol. 20 No. 2 June 2007: 127–145.) I also used  (and highly recommend) his book Singapore: The Air-conditioned Nation. Essays on the Politics of Comfort and Control, 1990-2000 (Singapore: Landmark Books.)
I have included links to other sources in the body of the text. I took the photographs shown here between 2004 and 2011; to see more see my Singapore album.
* This quote is from Sarah Palin, who misquotes Thomas Paine. He really said “”That government is best which governs least.”

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14 Responses to Singapore: Helicopter parent autocracy

  1. Milieu « Shaftesbury Avenue on March 30, 2012 at 9:40 am

    […] Helicopter parenting, from parents and government alike, has made neurotics out of us all. Or at least myself, if only not to be presumptuous on behalf of everyone else. The result is stunted adulthood – we are trapped in a perennial adolescent stage, swinging between teenage angst and rebellion by clicking on article after article on The Online Citizen, or Yawning Bread, and then rushing to bear arms to defend our surrogate father (the state is not exactly brimming with maternal affection here, even if it’s called a nanny state) on the slightest hint of (foreign) resentment.  […]

  2. Katie Douthitt on June 28, 2012 at 4:16 pm

    First off I would like to say this was engaging to read and helpful with my essay that I am writing about Singapore being an Air Conditioned nation. Singaporeans don’t feel the need to oppose PAP because they aren’t used to any other kind of lifestyle. Why would they want to be? Yes the government controls their freedom of speech in specific ways but overall what negative comments would their people have to say. The idea of being supplied with great eduction, healthcare, technologies, and living in a high quality of living, at least to me sounds like a pretty great life. Some of the extremes that the goverment has made illegal such as studying outside an airport, chewing gum, and forgetting to flush a public toilet all resulting in fines is odd to me. It shows however that the government really cares for a clean country and they care for their peoples well being. What PAP and Kuan Yew Lee have done for Singapore is actually very remarkable. They took a country that had no natural resources, was in poverty and just became independent from British rule to a wealthy nation and top ranked in almost every positive category. Singapore is a very curious place and I would love to visit it one day! Great Post I enjoyed every word of it!

  3. Sara Hickey on April 3, 2013 at 4:48 pm

    I really enjoyed this post. Its rare that you read something where a nation is actually doing something correctly. It seems like Singapore has a “big government” that actually isn’t corrupt. They may be a little paranoid but it seems to be working. To us it may seem strange to have the government so involved in our daily lives but like you said, if you grow up with it, it probably doesnt seem strange at all. I can see why they would elect these leaders over and over again when their livelihoods are improving and they don’t see their actions as intrusive. One thing that really stood out to me was how the government is involved with their citizens savings. Each child receive an “annual education subsidy deposited into a so-called ‘ Edusave’ account” and are required to save for retirement in a publicly managed account. I think this is a great idea if a country has a big government like this one. It both plans for future generations and makes sure the past generations have an enjoyable retirement. It pushes for fiscal responsibility and planning ahead. I also like that they have “near” universal health care. (I guess you can tell my political affiliation.) I can see where the opposition could call it a “nanny” state or link it to helicopter parenting though. It is intrusive, but I think its intrusive in a good way. As long as the system works, why change it? I think Singapore sounds very developed and like they’re doing well which contradicts what I thought was true before this course.
    Great post!

  4. Donald Rallis on April 3, 2013 at 6:43 pm

    I agree; if there is any country that is a poster child for what American conservatives like to call ‘big government,’ it’s Singapore. But, as you note, it seems to work.

  5. Jenny Lang on June 16, 2013 at 3:32 pm

    To us “outsiders”, we may think that the Singaporean government is like a helicopter parent because we are not used to the fact that everywhere on the streets there are signs telling us what to do and what is right. Personally I like the fact that Singapore has signs everywhere telling you what to do and now look at them; they’re are clean, with low crime rate and also their standard of life are better than where we live. Also this might not seems so terrible to Singaporeans because they grew up with the sense of responsibilities and its just their way of life. Since it’s working so well for Singapore who’s to say that its a bad idea.

  6. Arlete J. on July 8, 2013 at 10:04 pm

    I think that Singapore is a “nanny state.” They tell people what to do, how to behave, what to eat and what to do with their money. The government micromanages people by making them afraid and therefore keeping them silent and they become like little robots being told what to do. Notice that the government also destroys any opposition and people who disagree with them (the media and political parties). Hummmm, that sounds awfully familiar… like our government is trying to do in the US lately!!
    I certainly would not like to live in Singapore. Yes, they are very well off economically, but what good does a person to be wealthy and not being able to use her money they way she wants? I think that the best wealth a person can have is to be able to make her own decisions.

  7. Brianna D'Agata on July 9, 2013 at 12:10 am

    It is very interesting that the country offers advice on marriages. I wonder why the US with about a 50% divorce rate hasn’t done that! (I don’t mean this in a negative way). I agree with many topics you have discussed in this blog. The people in Singapore have most likely supported PAP because their government as been successful for its people. Singapore is very wealthy and, although it hasn’t always been, wealth has only increased from what I’ve been reading. Part of this successful and wealth is from Singapore’s surrounding waters. It as shocking to read about the banning of chewing gum and the consequences for violating the law. That seems way too far, but I do admire some of the other tactics Singapore’s government has tried. Singapore being named as “a helicopter parent state” is very clever and much more fitting than “a nanny state.” This makes me think of Singapore as a place that is trying to install good morals in its people. It reminds me of my job as a future elementary education teacher, teaching students wrong from right, morality, and behaviors. Although terrorism has not been seen there, prevention and a realistic approach (no naiveness) seems appropriate and potentially beneficial. At the same time, I also believe in freedom of expression and don’t think that Singapore should make all decisions for its people. Like children of helicopter parents, I wonder if native Singapore people also have a hard time adjusting once on their own if they move elsewhere? To me, I would think it would be a huge culture shock and quite difficult to not be as dependent. (I could be wrong, I am just curious!). Either way, I am glad that Singapore’s “helicopter parent state” works successfully, but I don’t think these exact same governmental approaches would be beneficial in all countries.

  8. Paola Fuentelsaz on July 11, 2013 at 5:16 pm

    I agree with all the previous posts. I think that Singapore’s government is doing a great job and its statistics are the proof. I do believe it would be hard to come from another country that is not as strict and have to adapt to all the new rules and guidelines. The way I see this is some parents are more strict than others just like some country’s governments are more strict than others. How is one to judge which parent or country is better? Are you a bad parent if you are too strict? Are you a bad parent if you are not strict enough? I think everyone would have their own opinion on this subject but in Singapore’s case I believe that being strict produced good results. When I moved from Bolivia to the US I was shocked with how many laws and rules there were. To be fined for: littering, not wearing your seat-belt, not following traffic laws, being intoxicated in public, etc are things that you would never hear in Bolivia. As strict as all these laws sounded, I eventually realized that that is the reason why the US is the way it is. It is much cleaner, the police enforce the law, people pay taxes, etc. I learned to embrace all these things and it gave me a new sense of pride of being in a country that takes so much effort into taking care of its people and their well-being. Where do we draw the line between being strict and being too strict? I don’t think there is a right answer, it think it depends on what kind of “parent” you are. Even though I am not a parent myself, I think that being a strict parent is better than not being strict at all. Does that mean I’ll be a strict parent? Perhaps :)

  9. Melissa S. on July 13, 2013 at 11:49 pm

    This was an interesting article. It made me really think. I don’t think I would like their rules very much. I think they are too strict but it is there way of life and they have been raised in this country and are use to it. The government does actually for the economy. All the children are getting a good education and the citizens are getting the necessary healthcare that is needed. Maybe out government needs to take some lessons from Lee Yew and loosen up some. I would like to have less crime rates and safer and cleaner neighborhoods.

  10. Alicia L. on July 14, 2013 at 6:22 pm

    I agree with Katie’s post. Apparently they have done something right and they do want a clean safe country. Freedom of Speech you could look at it two different ways, some times negativity is better left alone, if you can’t say something nice then don’t say anything at all. The citizens are use to this way and their government has made the economy strive. It works for them and they are happy.

  11. Katelyn P. on July 15, 2013 at 6:24 pm

    Even though Singapore is doing incredibly well with this form of government, it still freaks me out a little. It almost seems like some sort of utopian society. Being told what to do as a child and growing young person seems fit, but a grown adult? Of course I value and sometimes take for granted the freedoms that I have in America so my opinion is bias, it still seems like true freedom of speech is an important thing in a society. Even going along with the parenting metaphor, I think there is a difference between guiding/teaching and controlling. Yes, the country is doing extremely well, but at what cost? Even little freedoms being taking here and there seem small now, but I think that sometimes, the small things are the big things.

  12. Cheryl C. on July 18, 2013 at 9:25 pm

    They have some very strict laws here, and the Americans today would not know what to do if they had to abide by these rules. They are strict and I am not sure if I would be happy with the way that they do things, but it might just be for the best to learn some of there rules. The crime rate, and the violence may be cut way down if we started doing things that the people do in Singapore.

  13. Jessica Kamvar on July 19, 2013 at 5:00 pm

    I can’t say whether I agree or disagree with all of the signs, somewhat passive-aggressive or not. I think that being in an environment where there is such an emphasis on safety and personal hygiene does have an effect on the psyche. And why not? Walking down a clean gumless street doesn’t sound too bad. But I can’t help think that when something is overstated it simply becomes ignored as commonplace.

  14. Eric Raterman on July 20, 2013 at 12:23 am

    Several well off countries can tend to be very uppity about the quality of life in a place. America is unique, in that we don’t have nearly the kind of restrictions in many ways that other countries have, despite how the news always portrays Congress trying to take something away. It made me think about elections, especially the most recent one (2012), and how people wanted to move to Canada if the other party won. In some cases, Canada is more “socialist” (for the term most often thrown out) than America, and more closely resembles Europe economically, if not politically.

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