Burma or Myanmar?

Burma's famous Shwe Dagon pagoda, in Rangoon (or is it Yangon?)

Over the past week, we have been discussing the protests in Burma in the Geography of Asia class. Several students have asked me whether it is correct to refer to the troubled Southeast Asian country as Burma (as President Bush did in his recent UN speech) or Myanmar. (Or, perhaps, as some cautious news outlets have done as “Myanmar, formerly known as Burma.”) As is the case with many good questions, the answer is “It all depends.”

It depends first on whether you are Burmese. The people who live in the country don’t call it either Burma or Myanmar. I learned from I learned from a not-necessarily-reliable source that they call it

(pronounced Myanma) when using formal or literary language, and

(Bama) colloquially. Our dilemma is which of the Anglicized versions of the name to use.

Burma was the name used for the country by the British when the country was a colony. At independence, the country opted to keep the name. It was changed to Myanmar in 1989 by the new military regime. Members and supporters of the country’s democracy movement prefer to use the name Burma, though, as a signal of the fact that they do not recognize the legitimacy of the current regime or its actions.
The US State Department goes along with this, as does the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. James Fallows agrees:

When Westerners say “Myanmar,” they’re not being culturally respectful to the people of a beautiful but oppressed nation. (We don’t call China Zhongguo or Germany Deutschland just because the locals do.) They’re bowing to the whims of the generals who still imprison Aung San Suu Kyi. There is no reason to humor them… Say Burma, as George Bush did.

So which name to use turns out to be a political question.

Unsurprisingly, the rulers of Burma don’t call themselves “the military junta” or “the generals.” Their regime began its life as SLORC, the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Apparently satisfied that Law and Order had been restored, they adopted the Orwellian name “State Peace and Development Council” in 1997.

Can anyone think of any other examples of countries which, like Burma/Myanmar, which might have different names, each indicating a political or ideological point of view?

For news and background information on recent events in Burma, take a look at the BBC’s Special Report: Burma.

Update: I was fortunate enough to be able to visit Burma in June 2010. You can read about my visit here and see some photographs on my Picasa web album.


  1. Ted Minniear July 20, 2010
  2. Ted Minniear July 20, 2010
  3. Ted Minniear July 21, 2010
  4. Omio Chowdhury July 18, 2013

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